He fetal suffering It happens when, for some reason, the baby in the womb does not receive enough oxygen to carry out its vital functions. This decrease in oxygen supply can occur during childbirth, causing irreparable damage to brain tissues or even death, or during pregnancy when the baby does not receive adequate food or oxygen for normal development.
When fetal distress is caused by reduced oxygen supply to the fetus, it can lead to irreparable damage to brain tissue, and it is necessary to act quickly, generally performing an emergency cesarean section, in order to avoid serious consequences for the baby's health.
Oxygen is essential for vital functions. Its decrease results in a reduction in the metabolism of glucose, an element that helps cells produce energy. By not receiving the necessary glucose, the cell cannot maintain itself and ends up dying.
The reduction of oxygen causes the body of the fetus to react by redirecting the little oxygen it receives to the vital organs, which are the brain and the heart. But if fetal distress continues, that is, it continues for a long time, cell death proliferates and then affects the brainHence the injuries that occur in brain tissue, and in the heart, which can be the cause of death. Fetal distress can present in two forms: acute or chronic.
Acute fetal distress occurs when the lack of oxygenation in the baby is abruptly generated and constitutes an obstetric emergency. Since it is diagnosed, the indication is to hasten the birth of the baby in order to avoid that this lack of oxygen can harm it. In general, the cause that produces it is not modifiable and, consequently, the baby must be born as soon as possible.
It is usually detected during labor and is associated with the presence of contractions, an accident in the umbilical cord (knot) or an alteration in the placenta (detachment). Monitoring detects fetal distress during labor and its degree to determine the baby's health status.
Chronic fetal distress is not an obstetric emergency. It occurs when the lack of oxygenation or supply of nutrients settles in slowly, giving the baby time to get used to this unfavorable environment.
Generally, it is associated with babies who are underweight for their gestational age and the most common cause is maternal arterial hypertension, although there are other reasons. By taking extreme control of the mother and the baby, with treatment, it is possible to try to modify the cause that causes it until the baby is mature enough to be born.
Generally, distress is detected by measuring changes in the fetal heart rate. These are the so-called cardiotocographic signs (tachycardias, bradycardias), although there are more signs such as decreased movements of the baby or the appearance of meconium (baby's first stools) in the amniotic fluid.
In the presence of these signs, cesarean section is mandatory and urgent. Correct control during pregnancy is essential to detect chronic fetal distress. Proper control of labor, through fetal monitoring, is essential to detect acute fetal distress and avoid irreparable damage to the baby.
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